Federal Resources for Educational Excellence

This website, sponsored by the US Department of Education, contains a crazy amount of resources, sorted by subject and then by smaller topics within those subjects. Most of the links seem to lead to other websites, but the information seems pretty good, not to mention plentiful. Actually, I found it difficult to find actual  lesson plans. Instead, I was lead to whole websites with a ton of information, which is great but overwhelming. Maybe it will be easier to navigate when I’m teaching about a specific subject or topic so I know what to look for.

The Fight for Civil and Gay Rights

Here is a lesson plan about the similarities between the Civil Rights Movement of the ’60s and the Civil Rights Movement (if I may borrow the term) of the contemporary LGBTQQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex) community. The lesson (from Teaching Tolerance) is for grades 9-12 but it can probably be adapted for middle school. See this blog post for resources about teaching about the n-word.
Even if the teacher doesn’t want to devote so much time to this lesson or subject, this lesson is at least full of ideas about possible discussions and activities for relating the Civil Rights Movement to contemporary struggles.

Students will:

  • Learn how Bayard Rustin was an instrumental figure in the modern civil rights movement.
  • Develop an awareness of how individuals have the ability to simultaneously advocate for multiple causes, even if they conflict or overlap.
  • Analyze the connection between civil rights and gay rights.
  • Understand the similarities and differences between racism and heterosexism.
  • Explore how individuals, their beliefs and actions evolve over time.

Essential Questions:

  • Who was Bayard Rustin and why is he one of the twentieth century’s most important political organizers?
  • What challenges did Bayard Rustin confront as a gay man involved in the civil rights movement?
  • What are the similarities and differences between the civil rights and gay rights movements?
  • In what ways has our society changed for the better for LGBT people, and what improvements remain to be made?

Materials Needed:

Central Text

In this lesson, students will study the similarities between the modern civil rights movement and the current gay rights movement, through the words of Bayard Rustin. Earlier in his life, Rustin was open with his sexuality in private circles, but remained publicly silent about his homosexuality. Later in life, Rustin was more vocal, and became a vociferous advocate for gay rights in ways that had eluded him in his earlier years. In this lesson, students will discuss the similarities and differences between the civil rights and gay rights movements, as well as the dilemma black LGBT people often find themselves in while involved with social and political movements.

(Note: The recommended central text for this lesson uses the n-word. For information on the n-word, review Teaching Tolerance article “Straight Talk About the N-Word” and the accompanying toolkit.)

Word Work

In this task, you will read parts of the “Gays are the New Niggers” (see handout).

(Note: The recommended central text for this lesson uses the n-word. For information on the n-word, review Teaching Tolerance article “Straight Talk About the N-Word” and the accompanying toolkit.)

  1. Read the first seven paragraphs. While reading underline these words: heterosexist, appropriating, pacifism, Gandhian and villainized.
  2. After you have finished reading, discuss how each vocabulary word is used as an entire class or with a partner.
  3. Following the class discussion, independently define each term using your own words, and explain how it applies to Bayard Rustin’s life and activism. Remember to use complete sentences.

Close and Critical Reading

Read and Response

(Note: Number the paragraphs from 1-31 for the reading “Gays are the New Niggers.” Treat indented quotes like they are paragraphs. Suggested divisions: Excerpt 1: Paragraphs 8-11; Excerpt 2: Paragraphs 14-16; Excerpt 3: Paragraphs 25-28; Excerpt 4: Paragraphs 29-31.)

  1. In groups, analyze the excerpts and react to them. (Note: Consider doing this task as a jigsaw.) What is the statement being made? What reasoning is used to make the statement? Do you agree or disagree? Why?
  2. When reading, it’s important to analyze or deconstruct the text. Consider some of these suggested questions from the Center for Media Literacy: Who created this message? How might different people understand this message differently from me? Whose point of view is presented? What reasons might an individual have for being interested in this message? (Note: For more information on media literacy, visit the Center for Media Literacy.)
  3. Read “Gays are the New Niggers” again and complete the graphic organizer about the life of Bayard Rustin. In what organizations was Rustin active? When was he involved with these organizations? What cause or movement did the organization support? What role did Rustin play with the group? What leaders and activists did he meet due to the diversity of his political activism?

Community Inquiry

Discuss Rustin’s accomplishments and their significance. Is it possible to talk about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s leadership in the civil rights movement without also discussing Bayard Rustin? How did Rustin directly influence Dr. King’s leadership philosophy? How did Dr. King feel about Rustin’s homosexuality? Did Rustin’s sexuality impact the ways in which he was able to contribute to the civil rights movement? What does Rustin’s relationship with Dr. King reveal about the connection between gay rights and civil rights? Are gay rights separate from civil rights? Do you think that gay rights and civil rights should be studied separately, or should they be taught together? 

Write to the Source

Using the completed Graphic Organizer as your resource, reflect on what you learned about Bayard Rustin and how your understanding of him evolved throughout the activity. How did Rustin contribute to the civil rights movement despite the challenges he faced as a gay man?  What does Rustin’s life and activism represent about him as an individual, as well as how ideas, perceptions and people evolve over time? What accounts for the changes in Rustin’s willingness to openly advocate for gay rights in his later years? Did Rustin change? Did society change? Support your answer using examples from the text. Your answer must include examples that demonstrate how Rustin changed or did not change.

Do Something

Create a Bayard Rustin Award at your school. Each year, recognize a diverse group of students who embody the qualities that made Bayard Rustin such an important activist. With the help of a faculty mentor develop a list of personal qualities and other criteria that will be used to select recipients. Bayard Rustin’s birthday is March 17th. Honor Rustin’s legacy by announcing the group of students chosen by their peers to receive the award on that day. Give each student a certificate for the award.

Common Core State Standards (English Language Arts Standards)


1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.


1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Speaking and Listening

1. Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

2. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.


1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

Straight Talk About the N-word

Here are some resources from Teaching Tolerance about teaching about the use of the n-word in your classroom. They recommend that at least one African American adult is there to teach or facilitate discussion. The following resources are for grades 9-12, but I suppose they could be adapted if not used as a starting point to discuss the word with younger students. And let’s be real, none of us wishes to teach about the word because we don’t want to say it ourselves (says the young, white female).

The first resource is sort of a FAQ about the word:

The n-word is unique in the English language. On one hand, it is the ultimate insult- a word that has tormented generations of African Americans. Yet over time, it has become a popular term of endearment by the descendents of the very people who once had to endure it. Among many young people today—black and white—the n-word can mean friend.

Neal A. Lester, dean of humanities and former chair of the English department at Arizona State University, recognized that the complexity of the n-word’s evolution demanded greater critical attention. In 2008, he taught the first ever college-level class designed to explore the word “nigger” (which will be referred to as the n-word). Lester said the subject fascinated him precisely because he didn’t understand its layered complexities.

“When I first started talking about the idea of the course,” Lester recalled, “I had people saying, ‘This is really exciting, but what would you do in the course? How can you have a course about a word?’ It was clear to me that the course, both in its conception and in how it unfolded, was much bigger than a word. It starts with a word, but it becomes about other ideas and realities that go beyond words.”

Lester took a few minutes to talk to Teaching Tolerance managing editor Sean Price about what he’s learned and how that can help other educators.

How did the n-word become such a scathing insult?
We know, at least in the history I’ve looked at, that the word started off as just a descriptor, “negro,” with no value attached to it. … We know that as early as the 17th century, “negro” evolved to “nigger” as intentionally derogatory, and it has never been able to shed that baggage since then—even when black people talk about appropriating and reappropriating it. The poison is still there. The word is inextricably linked with violence and brutality on black psyches and derogatory aspersions cast on black bodies. No degree of appropriating can rid it of that bloodsoaked history.

Why is the n-word so popular with many young black kids today?
If you could keep the word within the context of the intimate environment [among friends], then I can see that you could potentially own the word and control it. But you can’t because the word takes on a life of its own if it’s not in that environment. People like to talk about it in terms of public and private uses. Jesse Jackson was one of those who called for a moratorium on using the word, but then was caught using the word with a live mic during a “private” whispered conversation.

There’s no way to know all of its nuances because it’s such a complicated word, a word with a particular racialized American history. But one way of getting at it is to have some critical and historical discussions about it and not pretend that it doesn’t exist. We also cannot pretend that there is not a double standard—that blacks can say it without much social consequence but whites cannot. There’s a double standard about a lot of stuff. There are certain things that I would never say. In my relationship with my wife, who is not African American, I would never imagine her using that word, no matter how angry she was with me. …

That’s what I’m asking people to do—to self-reflect critically on how we all use language and the extent to which language is a reflection of our innermost thoughts. Most people don’t bother to go to that level of self-reflection and self-critique. Ultimately, that’s what the class is about. It’s about selfeducation and self-critique, not trying to control others by telling them what to say or how to think, but rather trying to figure out how we think and how the words we use mirror our thinking. The class sessions often become confessionals because white students often admit details about their intimate social circles I would never be privy to otherwise.

What types of things do they confess?
In their circles of white friends, some are so comfortable with the n-word because they’ve grown up on and been nourished by hip-hop. Much of the commercial hip-hop culture by black males uses the n-word as a staple. White youths, statistically the largest consumers of hip-hop, then feel that they can use the word among themselves with black and white peers. … But then I hear in that same discussion that many of the black youths are indeed offended by [whites using the n-word]. And if blacks and whites are together and a white person uses the word, many blacks are ready to fight. So this word comes laden with these complicated and contradictory emotional responses to it. It’s very confusing to folks on the “outside,” particularly when nobody has really talked about the history of the word in terms of American history, language, performance and identity.

Most public school teachers are white women. How might they hold class discussions about this word? Do you think it would help them to lay some groundwork?
You might want to get somebody from the outside who is African American to be a central part of any discussion— an administrator, a parent, a pastor or other professional with some credibility and authority. Every white teacher out there needs to know some black people. Black people can rarely say they know no white people; it’s a near social impossibility. The NAACP would be a good place to start, but I do not suggest running to the NAACP as a single “authority.” Surely there are black parents of school children or black neighbors a few streets over or black people at neighboring churches. The teacher might begin by admitting, “This is what I want to do, how would you approach this? Or, how do we approach it as a team? How can we build a team of collaboration so that we all accept the responsibility of educating ourselves and our youths about the power of words to heal or to harm?” This effort then becomes something shared as opposed to something that one person allegedly owns.

How might a K-12 teacher go about teaching the n-word?
At the elementary level, I can imagine bringing in children’s picture books to use in conjunction with a segment on the civil rights movement, because students talk about the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Look at some of the placards [held by white people at 1960s civil rights] protests and see if some of them have been airbrushed or the messages sanitized. Talk about language, about words and emotion, about words and pain. Consider the role of words in the brutal attacks on black people during slavery, during Jim Crow, during the civil rights movement. Consider how words were part of the attacks on black people.

Depending on how old the students are, a teacher might talk about the violence that involved lynching and castration, and how the n-word was part of the everyday discourse around race relations at the time. Then bring in some hip-hop, depending again on the age. If these are middle school students or high school students, a teacher can talk specifically about hip-hop and how often the n-word is used and in a specific context. … There are many ways that a teacher can talk about the n-word without necessarily focusing on just one aspect—like whether or not Huck should have used the n-word when he references Jim [in Huckleberry Finn]. Any conversation about the n-word has to be about language and thinking more broadly.

What should teachers keep in mind as they teach about the n-word?
Remember the case of the white teacher who told the black student to sit down and said, “Sit down, nigga.” And then the teacher is chastised by the administration and of course there is social disruption. He said, “I didn’t say ‘Sit down, nigger,’ I said ‘Sit down, nigga,’ and that’s what I hear the students saying.” I’m thinking, first, you are an adult, white teacher. Secondly, do you imitate everything that you see and hear others doing or saying? At some level, there has to be some self-critique and critical awareness and sensitivity to difference. Just because someone else is doing it doesn’t mean that I do it even if and when I surely can.

In my courses, I’m more interested in raising questions than in finding answers to them. I think the questions lead to potential self-discovery. It’s not about whether or not a person uses the n-word. I try to move the class beyond easy binaries—“Well, blacks can use it, but whites can’t.” That line of thinking doesn’t take us very far at all. What we are trying to do, at least the way I have conceptualized and practiced this discovery, is so much more. The class strives to teach us all manner of ways to talk about, think about and to understand ourselves, and each other, and why and how we fit in the rest of the world.


The second resource is a lesson plan with discussion questions for grades 9-12. I won’t post the whole thing here. The link also leads to a few other resources on the subject. If the link is broken do a google search for search through the Teaching Tolerance website for “Portfolio Activity for “Straight Talk About the N-word.””


The third resource is a video called “A War For Your Soul” about the plight of African Americans. I haven’t seen it, but it’s only 20 minutes long. If the link is broken, do a google search for the title and you can find it on a variety of websites for free. Maybe if I get a chance to watch it, I’ll do a proper review.

Teaching Anti-Hate: Using the Holocaust as a Lens by Liav Shapiro

I stumbled across this lesson as a Google Doc probably a few years ago, bookmarked it, and forgot about it. I’m assuming I can repost it because I found it for free on the Internet. All credit goes to Liav Shapiro. I’m always on the look-out for good lessons about the Holocaust because it’s part of my own history, and part of everyone’s. It’s not just about the killing of Jews but the intolerance and hate for people who are different.

While I did my middle school practicum, my cooperating teacher was Jewish and he told me he didn’t teach about the Holocaust. He had books about the subject (nonfiction and historical fiction), but he didn’t explicitly have a unit on it. He said there were other, more relevant instances of hate and intolerance that weren’t so far in the past. It sounded like the Holocaust was so far back in history that kids can’t understand it…or that there were just “better” examples. I’m still struggling with the teacher’s answer. It just seems like an injustice for any students who not understand the Holocaust.

At any rate, here is an excellent unit plan on the Holocaust. It would, of course, need to be adapted to one’s personal classroom depending on whether you can find a Holocaust survivor to speak to your class and who your students are. This lesson was created for a 5th grade class, and it seems to me that the subject is explored in-depth and with sensitivity for the students and the subject matter.

If you are perhaps reading this post, consider leaving a comment about whether or not you think teachers should have a unit on the Holocaust and the importance (or not) of teaching this subject at all.

Anti-Hate Campaign: Teaching Anti-Hate: Using the Holocaust as a Lens
Lessons compiled and produced by Liav Shapiro 2009

What is hate? Introducing the word HATE:

To begin our study about standing up against hate, the students and I brainstormed words and situations that we associated with the word HATE. We created a web on large chart paper that still hangs in the back of the room. From
this discussion, my students mentioned ideas around gang fights in their communities, violence on the street and bullying in school. We talked about how hate can escalate into violence and how people get involved in violent acts that
are fueled with hate.

The next day, the students were broken into groups to define vocabulary around hate and intolerance. The students created their own definitions and then created posters to depict the meanings. These posters to posted around the
classroom for reference throughout the entire unit. Vocabulary used: Intolerance, discrimination, prejudice, axis powers, allied powers, genocide, segregation, and holocaust.

Day by day: How 5th graders began to understand how hate can escalate…
Day 1: KWL Chart: What is the Holocaust?

Day 2: Read The Butterfly and add to the class KWL Chart

Day 3: Hiding: Why did people need to hide in Europe during World War II? Do we know of other events in history when a group of people had to hide from another? Students offered parallels to the Civil War, slavery in the United States, and Native American History.

Day 4: The students were challenged to make a private list of things that they hate. They were asked to refrain from using names. Students listed people, places, foods, personalities, homework, etc… I then asked the students to count
how many entries on their lists were things and then how many were people or groups of people. As the students looked around the room, noticing that many more hands flew to the sky as I asked about people or groups of people that we
hate. We did not ever share these lists. They were meant to serve purpose and teach a lesson. We talked about how we all hold prejudices and believe many stereotypes that make us add certain people and groups to our lists. The students were shocked by this discussion. They wanted to talk about why they hate certain people and groups, but I quickly made it clear that the idea behind this unit is not to justify hate; it was to bring hate to the forefront of our class conversation, bringing awareness to ourselves and our community about what hate can lead to if we don’t fight against it.

Day 5: Watch Holocaust video on Brainpop.com and add to KWL chart

Day 6: Understanding what Jewish life was like before, during, and after WWII. Students research life in Europe prior to 1935. Students begin to understand that Jewish businesses were flourishing, freedom of religion allowed Jews to practice
without fear, relations among Jews and Germans were strong.

Day 7: Read A Picture Book of Anne Frank. Discuss how life changed for Anne’s family as Hitler rose to power.

Day 8: Watch Anne Frank Video on Brainpop.com. Students write letters to Anne Frank. They asked her questions and told her about times in their lives when they have experienced discrimination.

Day 9: Understanding what life was like in the Ghetto: Read The Cats in Krasinski Square. Discuss the purpose of ghettos, what the Nazis were trying to accomplish by forcing Jews into the ghettos. My students were eager to talk about Ghettos. They defined a ghetto as a place where African American live together for comfort, support, and unity. I asked them to research what the word ghetto means and we then changed our class definition to: A section of a city, where a large number of people that belong to one ethnic or religious group live; usually under political, economic or other hardships. The students were shocked to hear that a ghetto could be more than what they have seen and experienced.

This discussion marked a clear turning point in my classroom. The students were now extremely eager to learn about worldly events and issues. They asked questions such as: If there were ghettos with Jews in Europe during World War
II, are there ghettos anywhere else where certain groups are forced to live? How do you end up living in a ghetto? Can you ever get out?

Day 10: Refer back to Hitler Video and discuss Hitler’s Final Solution. How did Hitler plan on getting rid of so many people? Begin discussion of concentration and death camps as well as deportation.

Read: Luba story

Day 11: Understand resistance during the Holocaust and consequences for helping Jews, homosexuals, Gypsies, the disabled, and anyone else being sought after by the Nazis. Refer back to The Butterfly to reference resistance and the underground. Students pointed out similarities between hiding in the Holocaust and hiding slaves in the United States.

Day 12: The Black Holocaust

At first, the students were shocked that there was a Black Holocaust Museum at all. But with further probing and conversation they began to make parallels between how hate spread in both the Holocaust in Europe and involving African Americans in the U.S.

Day 13: Racism: In my classroom we had much earlier in the year discussed the word Race and how “races” are simply social constructs that have dictated and allowed for Racial discrimination for centuries. On Day 13, we discussed in more
depth, what is racism. The students wrote in their journals, describing events and anecdotes from their own lives where they have experiences or witnessed racism or racial bias.

Day 14: Watch DVD Paperclips

After watching the film, we discussed what the paperclip symbolizes and how the Paperclip project changed the small town of Whitwell, TN.

Day 15: My class and I decided that we wanted to do something in order to make sure that something like the holocaust never happens again. The students came up with the idea to write pledges against hate and injustice. At first I modeled a
pledge I might write, then the students returned to their desks and wrote their own. They were personal and original.

Day 16: Paper Clip Ceremony: First thing in the morning, the students and I assembled ourselves into a circle in the meeting area. I began by saying that today we would all be reading our pledges aloud, and than accepting a large paperclip to wear on our shirts as a symbol. We would spread awareness around our school by wearing these paperclips everyday for a week. The students were excited! I began, by reading my pledge aloud, then placing my large golden paperclip on my collar. My 29 students each followed. They were clearly enthused and inspired. Even my most difficult students, during our ceremony, remained serious and committed to this community event.

Day 17: A Holocaust Survivor comes to visit our classroom.

On this day, an amazing woman, who survived WWII Poland, came to speak to my students. Word quickly spread around the school, and 6 out-of-classroom teachers came to join us that afternoon as well. During the survivor’s discussion, the students were engaged, respectful, and intuitive. They asked thoughtful questions and truly showed empathy. Two of my students, having been born in Poland, shared stories of they grandparents’ experiences during World War II.

After the amazing survivor left for the day, my students wrote her letters of appreciation for sharing her experiences with them. They wrote that she changed the way they think about the world, that they feel fortunate to have spoken to a
survivor, and that they understood the Holocaust so much better after her visit.

Culminating project: Advertising Anti-Hate and Anti-Racism

During the final days of our unit, the students were asked to list the themes that they felt came out of our study. They listed: injustice, justice, hate, prejudice, discrimination, equality, equity, equal rights, civil rights, freedom, etc…

I provided the students with poster paper and paint and then asked them to choose a partner to come up with a way that they could advertise for one of the above themes.

The posters were beautiful and meaningful. They were displayed in the school auditorium for the 5th grade graduation!

Multi-Media Used to Teach about the Holocaust:
The Butterfly by Patricia Polacco
The Cats in Krasinski Square by Karen Hesse
Luba, the Angel at Bergen Belsen by Luba Tryszynska-Frederick
I Never Saw Another Butterfly by Hana Volavkova
Anne Frank: Behind the Diary by Rian Verhoeven, Ruud Van der Rol, Tony Langham, and Plym Peters
Paper Clips (2004)
Brainpop.com: Contains multiple short animated videos that teach about
various topics such as WWII, the Holcaust, Hitler, etc…

Teachers’ Domain

Teachers’ Domain is a website hosted by PBS that has lesson plans for basically all subject areas (if link is broken, google “Teachers’ Domain”). Most of the lessons include free movies and other materials. Standards are included if you register, which is free. It also includes teaching strategies and professional development information. I viewed one social studies lesson that was partially sponsored by Walmart, so that left me wondering…

Honestly, these lessons didn’t seem awesome. I’d still go to the Zinn Education Project or Teaching Tolerance for history/social studies lessons. The good news is that lessons are organized well by subject and grade, and, at the very least, the lessons can serve as a starting point. Maybe I didn’t look at enough lessons, because one of my education professors thinks highly of this website. And hey, free ideas and media.

Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson

Here is a lesson plan about Martin Luther King, Jr. – a good lesson, not one of those pre-packaged summaries of his I Have a Dream speech. I found the resource here.

Teacher’s Guide

Hidden in Plain Sight:
Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Radical Vision

Developed and piloted by Craig Gordon, Fremont High School in collaboration with Urban Dreams and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project in January, 2001

Revised, January, 2003

Last year, I was trying to get my U.S. History class to focus on a passage from Martin Luther King, Jr.’s 1967 book, Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community? Unfortunately, I was not surprised when a student protested, “We already know about him. We’re tired of hearing about Martin Luther King.” So I asked, “Okay, what do you know about him?” “He had a dream,” another student replied as others laughed. I insisted that there was infinitely more to King and his ideas than one very famous speech. “Well, that’s all they ever show us,” someone complained. “And that’s why I’m trying to show you something new about him,” I responded, showing, I hope, only a hint of my frustration.

The following unit attempts to help students penetrate the curtain of clichés and lies the corporate media have erected around Martin Luther King, Jr., in order to make him “safe” for public consumption. My objectives for students who participate in these lessons are that they will:

  1. Explicitly identify the ways in which Martin Luther King, Jr. is portrayed in the mass media, and specifically, which of his ideas are communicated to the public.
  2. Read and discuss a range of King’s ideas almost completely unknown to most of the public today.
  3. Reflect upon why many of King’s ideas introduced in this lesson are almost never referenced in the mass media or in U.S. History textbooks.

Essential Questions

  • What were the major ideas of Martin Luther King, Jr., and why aren’t they more publicly known?
  • How do the media depict King and his ideas and why?

A Very Brief Summary of the Unit  (roughly four hours):

Day One

  • Discussion of the ways the early civil rights movement influenced and inspired others and of what would happen if nobody knew about these events or about Martin Luther King and could it be that we really don’t know about Dr. King, after all?

Day Two

  • Survey what we already know about King and analyze the broadcast and print news stories on MLK Day. Does this news coverage add significant information to our knowledge of King’s ideas?Homework: Read excerpts of King’s speeches and writings. Identify lines that stand out as interesting, deep, meaningful, moving or surprising.

Day Three

  • Form groups of students who have read different parts of the handout with King quotes. (jig saw) Share lines that most impressed students in their respective section of the reading and discuss what impressed them most.
  • Read a “class poem” by having each student read a line that impressed her/him in quick succession, one student after the other, until the whole class has read a line.

Day Four

Use student handout to guide students in writing an “article” about students learning about King’s “unknown” ideas.

Teaching Tolerance

teaching toleranceThe Teaching Tolerance website is quite user-friendly but it’s not as useful as I’d like it to be as a future teacher pressed for time when writing lessons. (Teaching Tolerance is part of the Southern Poverty Law Center.) The lessons and activities aren’t presented in lesson or activity format so really the teacher would have to write a lesson plan almost from scratch while coming up with the objectives while backing it up with standards. The information is good (for the most part) and the resources at least give ideas for what to do in your classroom.

The information is organized by subject, grade level, and other options to fine-tune the search.

The site is history-based and focuses on racism, sexism, empowerment to minorities, immigration, LGBT figures, poverty, and more. I foresee using these resources as parts of lessons, not as whole ones themselves. For example, when teaching about the civil rights movement, I’ll bring in pieces from this website about women and LGBT activists or how we have stereotypes of others.

These activities/lessons could also be used in an English class when reading books about the Holocaust or have characters who are of a minority, and/or face racism or any other instances of intolerance. Lots of options here.

Really, the website is about realizing our biases and stereotypes and then acting on them to make the world better.

My fear is that using too many of these lessons would stray too far from the dreaded “standards,” but I think that any good teacher can incorporate these lessons in a smart way that enhances student understanding of the subject and the standards.

My other fear is parents being upset that I teach about these topics, namely LGBT lessons. I feel these lessons can be justified by saying that it’s history, not an agenda. They were there. They did stuff. They deserve a voice just like everybody else.

Teaching Tolerance offers other resources for educators, including a magazine that I should probably subscribe to when my subscription to Rethinking Schools runs out (talk about biases in that publication, yikes.)

Emancipation Proclamation lesson

Here is a link to a lesson plan about the Emancipation Proclamation for grades 9 – 12, although I think it could be altered to fit middle school. The lesson focuses mostly on the Proclamation and little leading up to it (like the fact that Lincoln began the presidency by not wanting or intending to free slaves), so maybe altering this lesson plan and using the resources offered by Bill Bigelow’s Rethinkin’ Lincoln article would give a more accurate and more interesting picture. What this lesson plan does well is explain how the Proclamation wasn’t perfect and the effect it had on the people at the time by not guaranteeing equality for all.

Also, look at this new website to explore! It’s called Edsitement. I see whatcha did there. Looks like it’s for social studies and English and other subjects.

Zinn Education Project

zinnThe Zinn Education Project is a website of history lessons and information organized by time period, grade level, and theme.

Materials can be used as a full lesson or as parts of lessons and can be easily adapted to specific levels.

Pros: Excellent information, organized well, well-constructed and researched information and lesson plans

Cons: Potentially controversial for parents (teaching that Hellen Keller was a socialist, the meaning behind the Pledge of Allegiance), possibly difficult to fit into curriculum and standards