25 Websites for Educational Equity

Here is a link to an article from edchange.org written by Paul Groski in which he lists and explains 25 websites related to educational equity. If the link is broken, search for the author’s name and “I don’t want to live without them: Twenty-five web sites for educational equity.”

The author gives sufficient explanations about how to best use each resource he lists, so I don’t do the same here. The article was written in 2005, so some resources may be outdated, but it’s a good starting place.

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Straight Talk About the N-word

Here are some resources from Teaching Tolerance about teaching about the use of the n-word in your classroom. They recommend that at least one African American adult is there to teach or facilitate discussion. The following resources are for grades 9-12, but I suppose they could be adapted if not used as a starting point to discuss the word with younger students. And let’s be real, none of us wishes to teach about the word because we don’t want to say it ourselves (says the young, white female).

The first resource is sort of a FAQ about the word:

The n-word is unique in the English language. On one hand, it is the ultimate insult- a word that has tormented generations of African Americans. Yet over time, it has become a popular term of endearment by the descendents of the very people who once had to endure it. Among many young people today—black and white—the n-word can mean friend.

Neal A. Lester, dean of humanities and former chair of the English department at Arizona State University, recognized that the complexity of the n-word’s evolution demanded greater critical attention. In 2008, he taught the first ever college-level class designed to explore the word “nigger” (which will be referred to as the n-word). Lester said the subject fascinated him precisely because he didn’t understand its layered complexities.

“When I first started talking about the idea of the course,” Lester recalled, “I had people saying, ‘This is really exciting, but what would you do in the course? How can you have a course about a word?’ It was clear to me that the course, both in its conception and in how it unfolded, was much bigger than a word. It starts with a word, but it becomes about other ideas and realities that go beyond words.”

Lester took a few minutes to talk to Teaching Tolerance managing editor Sean Price about what he’s learned and how that can help other educators.

How did the n-word become such a scathing insult?
We know, at least in the history I’ve looked at, that the word started off as just a descriptor, “negro,” with no value attached to it. … We know that as early as the 17th century, “negro” evolved to “nigger” as intentionally derogatory, and it has never been able to shed that baggage since then—even when black people talk about appropriating and reappropriating it. The poison is still there. The word is inextricably linked with violence and brutality on black psyches and derogatory aspersions cast on black bodies. No degree of appropriating can rid it of that bloodsoaked history.

Why is the n-word so popular with many young black kids today?
If you could keep the word within the context of the intimate environment [among friends], then I can see that you could potentially own the word and control it. But you can’t because the word takes on a life of its own if it’s not in that environment. People like to talk about it in terms of public and private uses. Jesse Jackson was one of those who called for a moratorium on using the word, but then was caught using the word with a live mic during a “private” whispered conversation.

There’s no way to know all of its nuances because it’s such a complicated word, a word with a particular racialized American history. But one way of getting at it is to have some critical and historical discussions about it and not pretend that it doesn’t exist. We also cannot pretend that there is not a double standard—that blacks can say it without much social consequence but whites cannot. There’s a double standard about a lot of stuff. There are certain things that I would never say. In my relationship with my wife, who is not African American, I would never imagine her using that word, no matter how angry she was with me. …

That’s what I’m asking people to do—to self-reflect critically on how we all use language and the extent to which language is a reflection of our innermost thoughts. Most people don’t bother to go to that level of self-reflection and self-critique. Ultimately, that’s what the class is about. It’s about selfeducation and self-critique, not trying to control others by telling them what to say or how to think, but rather trying to figure out how we think and how the words we use mirror our thinking. The class sessions often become confessionals because white students often admit details about their intimate social circles I would never be privy to otherwise.

What types of things do they confess?
In their circles of white friends, some are so comfortable with the n-word because they’ve grown up on and been nourished by hip-hop. Much of the commercial hip-hop culture by black males uses the n-word as a staple. White youths, statistically the largest consumers of hip-hop, then feel that they can use the word among themselves with black and white peers. … But then I hear in that same discussion that many of the black youths are indeed offended by [whites using the n-word]. And if blacks and whites are together and a white person uses the word, many blacks are ready to fight. So this word comes laden with these complicated and contradictory emotional responses to it. It’s very confusing to folks on the “outside,” particularly when nobody has really talked about the history of the word in terms of American history, language, performance and identity.

Most public school teachers are white women. How might they hold class discussions about this word? Do you think it would help them to lay some groundwork?
You might want to get somebody from the outside who is African American to be a central part of any discussion— an administrator, a parent, a pastor or other professional with some credibility and authority. Every white teacher out there needs to know some black people. Black people can rarely say they know no white people; it’s a near social impossibility. The NAACP would be a good place to start, but I do not suggest running to the NAACP as a single “authority.” Surely there are black parents of school children or black neighbors a few streets over or black people at neighboring churches. The teacher might begin by admitting, “This is what I want to do, how would you approach this? Or, how do we approach it as a team? How can we build a team of collaboration so that we all accept the responsibility of educating ourselves and our youths about the power of words to heal or to harm?” This effort then becomes something shared as opposed to something that one person allegedly owns.

How might a K-12 teacher go about teaching the n-word?
At the elementary level, I can imagine bringing in children’s picture books to use in conjunction with a segment on the civil rights movement, because students talk about the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Look at some of the placards [held by white people at 1960s civil rights] protests and see if some of them have been airbrushed or the messages sanitized. Talk about language, about words and emotion, about words and pain. Consider the role of words in the brutal attacks on black people during slavery, during Jim Crow, during the civil rights movement. Consider how words were part of the attacks on black people.

Depending on how old the students are, a teacher might talk about the violence that involved lynching and castration, and how the n-word was part of the everyday discourse around race relations at the time. Then bring in some hip-hop, depending again on the age. If these are middle school students or high school students, a teacher can talk specifically about hip-hop and how often the n-word is used and in a specific context. … There are many ways that a teacher can talk about the n-word without necessarily focusing on just one aspect—like whether or not Huck should have used the n-word when he references Jim [in Huckleberry Finn]. Any conversation about the n-word has to be about language and thinking more broadly.

What should teachers keep in mind as they teach about the n-word?
Remember the case of the white teacher who told the black student to sit down and said, “Sit down, nigga.” And then the teacher is chastised by the administration and of course there is social disruption. He said, “I didn’t say ‘Sit down, nigger,’ I said ‘Sit down, nigga,’ and that’s what I hear the students saying.” I’m thinking, first, you are an adult, white teacher. Secondly, do you imitate everything that you see and hear others doing or saying? At some level, there has to be some self-critique and critical awareness and sensitivity to difference. Just because someone else is doing it doesn’t mean that I do it even if and when I surely can.

In my courses, I’m more interested in raising questions than in finding answers to them. I think the questions lead to potential self-discovery. It’s not about whether or not a person uses the n-word. I try to move the class beyond easy binaries—“Well, blacks can use it, but whites can’t.” That line of thinking doesn’t take us very far at all. What we are trying to do, at least the way I have conceptualized and practiced this discovery, is so much more. The class strives to teach us all manner of ways to talk about, think about and to understand ourselves, and each other, and why and how we fit in the rest of the world.

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The second resource is a lesson plan with discussion questions for grades 9-12. I won’t post the whole thing here. The link also leads to a few other resources on the subject. If the link is broken do a google search for search through the Teaching Tolerance website for “Portfolio Activity for “Straight Talk About the N-word.””

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The third resource is a video called “A War For Your Soul” about the plight of African Americans. I haven’t seen it, but it’s only 20 minutes long. If the link is broken, do a google search for the title and you can find it on a variety of websites for free. Maybe if I get a chance to watch it, I’ll do a proper review.

From Rage to Hope – Crystal Kuykendall

from rage to hope The full title is From Rage to Hope: Strategies for Reclaiming Black and Hispanic Students. Overall, a quality book which gave concrete examples of how to reach these students. While the book focused on Black and Hispanic students (possibly more so on  Black students due to the author’s own background), most if not all of the suggestions and studies can be applied to all students. What was possibly most useful was the explanation of the intricacies of Black culture (generalizing, here) that I was unaware of as a white lady. For example, Black students may “Play the Dozens” which is a game about insulting people’s relatives or mothers but is really about being quick witted and good with language. Basically, if students are doing this, they shouldn’t be punished for insulting people (unless they really ARE insulting people) but rewarded for their skills which should be channeled into classwork or activities.

The resounding lesson here is that teachers must love each and every student, no matter their faults. Always find something good in each student and use that quality to  build that student up. The author writes with a sense of urgency that we must forsake our stereotypes of these children (because most teachers in America are White and middle-class) and expect success from all children. No excuses.

The book addressed why many African American and Hispanic students don’t do well in school: because they don’t want to be labeled as White for being successful in this White-centric society. The author suggests that teaching about the academic and life achievements of African American and Hispanic (and others) people with whom students can identify. Basically, Black History is every day, not just in February. The same can be said about teaching about people from all backgrounds.

Kuykendall asks us to look at our society and culture of our schools to see if we are excluding anybody. For example, some schools don’t allow students to wear cornrows in their hair (which excludes African Americans) or wear large earrings (which excludes Latinas who might wear large hoop earrings – again with the generalizing). It’s time to step back and look with a critical eye at our decisions, biases, rules, and expectations.

Teaching Tolerance

teaching toleranceThe Teaching Tolerance website is quite user-friendly but it’s not as useful as I’d like it to be as a future teacher pressed for time when writing lessons. (Teaching Tolerance is part of the Southern Poverty Law Center.) The lessons and activities aren’t presented in lesson or activity format so really the teacher would have to write a lesson plan almost from scratch while coming up with the objectives while backing it up with standards. The information is good (for the most part) and the resources at least give ideas for what to do in your classroom.

The information is organized by subject, grade level, and other options to fine-tune the search.

The site is history-based and focuses on racism, sexism, empowerment to minorities, immigration, LGBT figures, poverty, and more. I foresee using these resources as parts of lessons, not as whole ones themselves. For example, when teaching about the civil rights movement, I’ll bring in pieces from this website about women and LGBT activists or how we have stereotypes of others.

These activities/lessons could also be used in an English class when reading books about the Holocaust or have characters who are of a minority, and/or face racism or any other instances of intolerance. Lots of options here.

Really, the website is about realizing our biases and stereotypes and then acting on them to make the world better.

My fear is that using too many of these lessons would stray too far from the dreaded “standards,” but I think that any good teacher can incorporate these lessons in a smart way that enhances student understanding of the subject and the standards.

My other fear is parents being upset that I teach about these topics, namely LGBT lessons. I feel these lessons can be justified by saying that it’s history, not an agenda. They were there. They did stuff. They deserve a voice just like everybody else.

Teaching Tolerance offers other resources for educators, including a magazine that I should probably subscribe to when my subscription to Rethinking Schools runs out (talk about biases in that publication, yikes.)

Teaching for Change

for change

Teaching for Change has an archive of articles about stereotypes and culture that are appropriate for adult readers or high school students. There aren’t lesson plans that I can find, although the articles are well-researched and have good talking points for parents and teachers. Articles are available in English and Spanish.

I could see using some of these articles (what it means to be White or mixed race, what is culture, Arab stereotypes) in middle or high school classrooms with editing or just to give teachers some talking points or questions to ask during a lesson from another source. I could also see using these articles with parents whose children are biased towards students of other ethnicity or teachers who could use some professional development in stereotypes and tolerance.